Rules for the preparation for research
A general blood test (deployed, including the number of platelets)
A special training is not required
General urine analysis
Collect the morning, the first after awakening, urine (the whole serving completely), pretreated with warm water and soap, the external genitalia and perineum. The time from collection of urine to delivery to the laboratory should not exceed 1-2 hours
Urinalysis by Nechiporenko
To collect the morning urine, the first after waking up, as follows: treat the external genitalia and perineum with warm water and soap, after which a small initial portion of urine merges into the toilet bowl, then the main part is collected in a container; at the end of urination urine again merges into the toilet bowl. The time from collection of urine to delivery to the laboratory should not exceed 1-2 hours
Bacteriological culture of urine
Urine is collected in sterile dishes in the same way as for Nechiporenko’s test
Two-glassed sample – for women or three-glassed sample – for men
In the morning after waking, treat the external genitalia and perineum with warm water and soap, then collect the urine in the following way: a small initial portion of urine is collected in jar No.1, the second (bulk by volume) is collected in jar No.2; in men at the end of urination, the last portion is collected in jar No.3. The time from collection of urine to delivery to the laboratory should not exceed 1-2 hours
Urine analysis in the orthostatic test (protein and erythrocytes in the urine before and after the orthostatic load)
Immediately after awakening before getting out of bed, the entire portion of urine is collected in jar No.1. Then get up and for 2 hours perform orthostatic loads: continuously walk, laying behind your back in the lumbar flexure a gymnastic stick or hands, climb quickly and go down the stairs, make a few jumps, etc. After 2 hours, assemble a second urine sample (bank number 2)
Analyzes of daily urine: daily protein, a test for microalbuminuria, daily excretion of electrolytes: uric acid, calcium, phosphorus, oxalates, potassium, sodium
On the eve of the analysis, the first morning portion of urine is discharged into the toilet, time is noted (for example, 7:00). Beginning with the next serving, all the urine within 24 hours is collected in a container (jar) with a tightly closed lid. The container can be stored at room temperature. The last time you need to collect urine exactly 24 hours after the beginning of the sample (in this example – at 7:00 the next day). After completing the sample with a beaker, measure the volume obtained (accurate to 10-50 ml), then carefully mix the urine and collect 20-40 ml in a small vial or tube, on which to write down the name and volume of urine collected per day. The analysis for daily excretion of electrolytes is usually combined with a biochemical blood test, which must be submitted in the morning after the completion of the collection of 24-hour urine
The Rebberg test
Daily urine is collected, as well as for daily protein analysis. Do not forget to accurately measure the amount of daily urine! In the morning, when the collection of daily urine is completed, it is necessary to donate blood from the vein to the creatinine. For the accuracy of the study, the volume of daily urine should be at least 1000 ml, for which on the day of the test, you must drink at least 1.5 liters of fluid
Urinalysis of the Zimnitsky
Prepare 8 containers (jars) with a lid, each write a name, the number of the analysis for the laboratory and the serial number from 1 to 8. The urine is collected during the day: from 6:00 to 9:00 – in the first jar, after 9:00 until 12:00 – in the second, etc. If there is no urge to urinate at a given time interval, the corresponding jar is left empty. Consumption of liquid during the test is limited to no more than 800-1000 ml per day
Creatinine, urea, uric acid, potassium, sodium, total protein, albumin, total cholesterol, cholesterol fractions, triglycerides, glucose, total and direct bilirubin, liver enzymes (alkaline phosphatase, γ-HT, AsAT, ALT, cholinesterase ), LDH, CKK, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, iron, OJCS or transferrin, ferritin, vitamin B12, folic acid, C-reactive protein, homocysteine, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C) Blood is being delivered from the vein on an empty stomach
Immunoelectrophoresis of blood serum and urine
Daily urine is collected, after which in the morning, blood is shed from the vein
Immunological blood tests
Immunoglobulins: IgA, IgM, IgG; complement, cryoglobulins, antibodies to the cytoplasm of neutrophils (ANCA-IgM, IgG), rheumatoid factor, antibodies to native and denatured DNA, antinuclear factor, antibodies to cardiolipin (IgM, IgG), antibodies to beta2-glycoprotein-I (IgM, IgG), etc. Blood is shed from the vein; for some tests it is necessary that the last meal take at least 8 hours
Coagulologic analysis of blood (investigation of the coagulation system)
Prothrombin Quique, International Normalized Ratio (INR), activated partial thromboplastin time, thrombin time, plasma fibrinogen, antithrombin III, soluble fibrin monomer complexes, D-dimer (fibrin degradation product), Activated protein-C, lupus anticoagulant. veins on an empty stomach
Blood test for gene mutations associated with kidney damage
Blood from the vein is surrendered; it is desirable that the last meal is at least 8 hours
Blood test for hormones
Triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TTG), parathyroid hormone (PTH), aldosterone, plasma renin activity, prolactin, etc. Blood is being delivered from the veins on an empty stomach, On the eve of excluding overloads, stresses. Immediately before taking blood, it is desirable to be at rest for at least 30 minutes. Blood for renin / aldosterone should be handed over, while in the upright position of the body (sitting or standing) for at least 2 hours. Female sex hormones are determined taking into account the phase of the menstrual cycle
Catecholamines (adrenaline, norepinephrine, dopamine) in the urine
The study is most informative in the period of maximum pressure increase. It is preferable to collect urine in 24 hours, collection in 12, 6, 3 hours or a single portion is possible. When submitting the material, it is necessary to indicate the time of collection and the total volume of urine
Markers of viral hepatitis and other infections
HBsAg, Anti-HBs, HBeAg, Anti-HBe, Anti-HBcore total, Anti-HBcore IgM, HBV-DNA PCR (quality, number) Anti-HCV, HCV-RNA (quality, genotype, number) Anti-HIV, Wasserman’s reaction, etc. Blood from the vein is surrendered, no preparation is required Ultrasound examination of the abdominal organs, kidneys, pelvis (with determination of the mobility of the kidneys – with breathing and standing
Ultrasonic dopplerography (UZDG) of kidney vessels
With a tendency to gassing in the intestine 2 days prior to the study, exclude black bread, raw vegetables and fruits, dairy products. On the eve of the study, take espumizan for 2 caps. 3 times a day; if the study is scheduled after 12:00, in the morning 4 hours before the study take 2 more caps. espumizana. Examination of the abdominal cavity organs is performed on an empty stomach (do not eat or drink at least 4 hours before the study). Before exploring the bladder, if it is incomplete, drink 2 cups of water
Excretory urography, Computed tomography (CT) of kidney and urinary tract
With a tendency to gassing in the intestines to follow a diet and take espumizan, as in the preparation for ultrasound (before computed tomography – not necessarily). The study is allowed only after receiving the results of a biochemical blood test for creatinine. The study can not be performed immediately after the radiocontrast study of the gastrointestinal tract using barium contrast (radiography of the stomach, irrigoscopy). It is necessary to warn the doctor in advance about all cases of adverse reactions to the introduction of radiocontrast substances, any manifestations of drug and other allergies, if they were noted in the past. On the eve and on the day of the study, an extended water regime is recommended, excluding anesthetic and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (analgin, pentalgin, citramone, voltaren, ibuprofen, indomethacin, nurofen, etc.), diuretic unless otherwise indicated by the treating physician. It is recommended to discuss in advance the possibility of detailed recording of the received images digitally on a CD-ROM that is handed out to the patient’s hands together with the conclusion.
Preparation for CT of abdominal organs of CT of pancreas CT of small pelvis CT of kidneys
1. The contents of two ampoules urographene 76% diluted in 1.5 liters of boiled water
2. In small portions at night before the study, 0.5 liters of solution
3. In the morning on the day of the study, instead of breakfast, drink another 0.5 liters of solution
4. The remaining 0.5 liters (take along) to drink for 30 minutes and 15 minutes before the study
Additional preparation for CT of the small pelvis
1. Do not urinate for 30-40 minutes before the test.
2. For women, carry a vaginal swab
Preparation of patients for X-ray examination
X-ray examination of the stomach and duodenum (gastroscopy)
The last meal is not later than 20 hours before. In the presence of persistent constipation and flatulence – the evening before the study: and in the morning for 1, 5 -2 hours to put a cleansing enema In the morning, exclude breakfast, taking medicines
X-ray examination of the large intestine (irrigography)
1 Method: Make two cleansing enemas at an interval of 1 hour in the evening on the eve of the study to do 1-2 cleansing enemas on the morning of the day of the study (no later than 2 hours before the study). Exclude from the diet products that promote gassing (vegetables, fruits, sweet, milk, black bread). On the prescription of the doctor – activated charcoal. Limit the intake of liquid to 1 liter from the afternoon on the eve of the study. Cleansing: enema in the morning (1-2) no later than 2 hours before the study.
2 Method using FORTRANS: If the study is carried out in the morning: each of the four packages of Fortrans preparation is dissolved alternately in a liter of water (4 liters in total). Drink the finished solution, starting from 15 hours to 19 hours at a speed of 1 liter per hour. Meals are prohibited. In parallel, you can drink water, clarified juices in small amounts. Purification of the intestine occurs naturally. If the study is done at lunch: take the drug should be removed from 17 to 21 hours.
X-ray examination of the kidneys (excretory intravenous urography)
Preparation – To exclude from the diet products that promote gassing (vegetables, fruits, sweets, milk, black bread). On the prescription of a doctor-carbolen, activated charcoal. Limit the intake of fluid to 1 leaf from the afternoon of the day before the study. Cleansing enemas in the morning and in the evening.
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the kidneys and urinary tract
Special preparation for MRI of kidneys is not required. The bladder in the MRI of the pelvis should be partially filled, so that there is no urge to urinate during the study. The presence in the body of foreign metal materials, implanted pacemakers and other devices sensitive to the magnetic field limits the possibility of using MRI. It is recommended to discuss in advance the possibility of detailed recording of the received images digitally on a CD-ROM that is handed out to the patient’s hands together with the conclusion.
With MRI of the abdominal cavity and pelvic organs – it is recommended to refrain from eating and drinking 5 hours before the study. No special preparation for MRI of other organs is usually needed. Contrast in MRI is not used in most cases, but sometimes it can not be done without. Contrast is introduced into the vein through the catheter, no unpleasant sensations and complications occur in this case. MRI – Contrast to pregnant is contraindicated.
For some blood tests (coagulation, genetics, some hormonal tests, etc.), special tubes with a preservative may be needed, which must first be obtained in the laboratory where the analysis will be performed
Preparation of patients for endoscopic methods of research
Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EHDS) refers to the endoscopic method of examination, in which the upper sections of the gastrointestinal tract are examined: the esophagus, stomach and duodenum. Gastroscopy will help to diagnose correctly in many conditions, including pain in the stomach, bleeding, ulceration, swelling, difficulty swallowing and many others.
Indications for EHDS: chronic diseases of the esophagus, stomach, bulb of the duodenum (gastritis, erosion, peptic ulcer disease), Menetries disease, polyposis of the stomach and intestines, Barrett’s esophagus, etc .; precancerous changes in the epithelium of the esophagus and stomach (metaplasia, dysplasia); the presence of complaints of dyspepsia (belching, heartburn, nausea, dysphagia, aversion to meat, increased salivation, bloating, a feeling of heaviness in the epigastrium, vomiting, pain syndrome); operations on the esophagus, stomach, duodenum in the anamnesis; Anemia, weight loss, prolonged fever, unmotivated weakness; presence of a black stool; long-term use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, homonids, anticoagulants; age over 40 years, if no previous surveys have been conducted, even in the absence of complaints; presence of close relatives, patients with stomach cancer.
Preparation for the study: The study is carried out on an empty stomach. Allowed to take medications with a small amount of water. Before the test, it is necessary to inform the doctor about the existing allergy to medicines, if you have it and about what medications you are taking.
Bronchoscopy is an endoscopic method of assessing the mucosa and lumen of the trachea and bronchi. Diagnosis is performed using flexible endoscopes that are inserted into the lumen of the trachea and bronchi.
Indications for bronchoscopy are chronic lung diseases (bronchitis, pneumonia, bronchial asthma, lung abscess, etc.); long cough, pain in the chest, prolonged fever, weakness, weight loss; presence of hemoptysis; changes on radiographs; suspicion of a foreign body; long hoarse voice; necessity of tracheobronchial sanation.
Preparation for bronchoscopy Endoscopic examination is performed on an empty stomach to avoid accidental ingestion of food or fluid residues in the respiratory tract during emetic movements or coughing, so the last meal should be no later than 21 hours before the examination. In the morning, on the day of the study, medication with a small amount of water is allowed. Do not forget to tell the doctor about the presence of allergies and taking medications.
Fibrocolonoscopy is an endoscopic examination, during which visually, that is under the control of vision, the condition of the mucous membrane of the colon is assessed. The study is performed by flexible endoscopes. The study is performed on an empty stomach. Acceptance of medicines.
Indications for fibrocolonoscopy: frequent constipation, diarrhea, alternating constipation with diarrhea; black stool, discharge of mucus, blood during defecation; pain along the bowels, false urges, anemia, weight loss, prolonged fever; positive feces for occult blood and positive coprologic tests; presence in the anamnesis of chronic colitis, ulcerative colitis, Crohn’s disease, single and multiple polyps; presence in the anamnesis of treatment in occasion of a cancer of a thick intestine and sexual sphere, removal of polyps in a thick gut; relatives of patients with intestinal cancer.
Preparing for a colonoscopy In order to examine the mucous membrane of the colon, it is necessary that there is no stool in its lumen. Two days before the study, it is recommended to eat broth, boiled meat, fish, chicken, eggs, cheese, white bread, biscuits. It should be excluded fruits, vegetables, greens, cereals, legumes, mushrooms, berries, grain bread. On the eve of the study – water-tea diet (mineral water, tea, clear juices, broths). In the presence of chronic constipation, use laxatives 2-3 days before the main preparation (Senadé, Dufalac, castor oil, bisacodyl or others) or combine with cleansing enemas.
Preparing for colonoscopy with fortrans preparation. Complete cleaning of the intestine is achieved without cleansing enemas. Normally 4 packs of Fortran preparation are needed for preparation (the dosage is prescribed at the rate of 1 sachet per 15-20 kg of body weight). Each packet must be dissolved in 1 liter of water. 4 liters of Fortran solution are taken in the afternoon on the eve of the colonoscopy. Each liter of solution taken for an hour, a glass for 15 minutes in separate sips. After 45-60 minutes you will have a loose stool. Emptying of the intestine is completed by the release of a clear or slightly colored liquid 2-3 hours after receiving the last dose of Fortrans.
Preparation for colonoscopy with Dufalac (200ml) At 15 o’clock, on the eve of the day of the study, dilute 100 ml of the drug in 1, 5 liters of water and drink for 3-4 hours. You should have a mild painless diarrhea. Repeat all at 7 o’clock. The washing liquid leaving you should gradually become cleaner and do not have any additional impurities. The amount of liquid you drink, taking into account the drunk volume of broths and juices should not be less than 4 liters.
Preparing for ultrasound
Preparation for ultrasound of the abdominal cavity organs
The most acceptable time for research is in the morning on an empty stomach. If the study is in the afternoon, in the morning, a light breakfast and an interval between meals and ultrasound for at least 6 hours is allowed; 2-3 days before the examination, it is recommended to exclude from the diet products that enhance gassing in the intestine (raw vegetables, rich in vegetable fiber, whole milk, black bread, legumes, carbonated drinks, as well as high-calorie confectionery – cakes, cakes); With a tendency to increased gas production, it is recommended to take enterosorbents (for example, activated charcoal or espumizane 2 tablets 3 times a day) 2-3 days before the test.
Preparation for ultrasound of the pelvic organs (bladder, uterus, appendages in women)
For transabdominal (through the abdomen) gynecological ultrasound (TA), the preparation of the bladder is necessary: drink 1 liter of still water 1 hour before the procedure; For transvaginal (intracavitary) gynecological ultrasound (TV), special training is not required, the study is conducted with a bladder emptied; Obstetric ultrasound (ultrasound in pregnancy) is performed with a moderately filled bladder (drink 2 cups of fluid 1 hour before the procedure);
Preparation for ultrasound of the bladder and prostate in men
the study is performed with a complete bladder, so you need to drink 1 liter of non-carbonated liquid for 1 hour before the procedure; the night before, it is necessary to perform a cleansing enema;
Preparation for ultrasound of the mammary glands
The primary preventive examination can be done on any day of the cycle. Research of mammary glands with a clarifying purpose is desirable to be carried out in the first 10 days of the menstrual cycle (optimally 5-7 days).
Ultrasound of the thyroid gland, scrotal ultrasound and kidney ultrasound
these studies do not require special training.